What is a Database? | Token Spoken
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What is a Database?

A database is a collection of data or information organized. Nowadays, the size of information and data is getting bigger and what is difficult is to store this information in the way you can easily find and access it whenever you want. The databases are divided into three types:

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The central database: all data is stored on a computer in a unified structure. To obtain information, you need to connect to the host computer called the server.

Decentralized database: This means that there is no central storage. Some servers provide information to the customer. The servers are connected to each other.

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Distributed database: There is no data storage. All nodes contain information. The customers are equal and have equal rights.

How are classical databases in real life?

There are still many issues with databases that have been around for many years.

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Security: If someone accesses the server, any data can be added, changed and removed.

Reliability:If too many requests reach the database at the same time, the server may become out of order or unresponsive.

Accessibility:  If there is a problem with the main server, you will not be able to access the information until the problem is solved. In addition, different users have different needs, but because of the uniformity of processes, they may not be suitable for every customer.

Data transfer speed:If the nodes are in different countries or in different continents, there may be a problem with the connection to the server.

Scalability:  Because the server capacity is limited, scaling of the central networks is difficult and traffic can not be infinite. Decentralized and distributed databases can solve these problems.

How about decentralized databases in terms of security?

Decentralized databases are good for security; they do not have a central storage area.  This means that all the data is distributed among the nodes of the network.   If something is added, edited, or deleted on any computer, it is reflected on all computers in the network.  If there are some legal changes that are accepted, new information is spread among other users throughout the network.  Otherwise, the data is backed up to overlap with the other nodes. Thus, the system protects the self-organizing and self-fulfilling structure. Databases are protected from intentional attacks or accidental alteration of information.

How are reliability, accessibility and data transfer speed?

Decentralized networks can tolerate network overload. All nodes of the network have data and requests are distributed among the nodes. For this reason, the processing load is distributed not to a computer but to the entire network.  The total capacity of the network is much larger than the centralized network.

Since the number of computers in a decentralized or distributed network is high, DDoS attacks are only possible if the capacity is greater than that of the network.  Such an attack is quite costly. In such attacks, central nets are assumed to be more secure because the response time of the decentralized and distributed networks is longer.

Users should be aware that there may be problems with internet connection as they are all around the world. In decentralized and distributed networks, the user can select the node and work using all necessary information.


A central network cannot be expanded to a large extent.

In the centralized model, all users are connected to the server. Only the server stores all the data.  For this reason, all requests for retrieval, modification, addition or removal of the data are passed through the host computer. However, since server resources are limited, transactions can only be performed effectively for a certain number of users.

As the number of users increases, the load of the server may exceed the limit in the peak period. This is not a problem in decentralized and distributed models, as load distribution is shared among various computers.

How to implement decentralized and distributed databases?

Databases accelerate communication between different parties in the production line. To illustrate this as an example, the automobile goes through many stages, from mounting, selling to insurance and usage.  Many documents and reports are being prepared at each stage. If any verification or information is required, this certificate is required from the relevant institution. The obstacles such as linguistic problems, bureaucracy, distance can cause trouble and prolong this process.

The blockchain can prevent all these problems.  Information about each car is kept on the network and can not be changed or removed without the consent of the participant; this information can be accessed when requested. Smart contracts/agreements can make it easier to implement the blockchain. Companies like CarFix are working on the development of the vehicle life cycle using the blockchain.

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